An Agile Architecture Community of Practice


Background

We often coach organizations on scaling Scrum, where 4-12 Scrum Teams are working on the same Product or a set of closely related Products (Applications, Systems, etc). We often get asked how things like Architecture and other multi-team related concerns are handled in a scaled Scrum approach. In Agile practice, handling these multi-team concerns is usually handled via a mechanism called a “Community of Practice”. Below is an example of a moderately mature community, based on a compilation of ideas that we have seen work well in the field. Note also that a TeamSet should always have more than one “Community of Practice”,and new ones should be formed and dissolved as needed.

Caveats about the example below:

  1. We use the term “TeamSet” below to refer to a set of teams, the 4-12 mentioned above, working on a Product or set of closely related Products. Obviously the more high impact the architectual initiatives, the more formality of process you will likely need. So, if your set of closely related Products is not that closely related, then this community should be less formal and less broadly applicable in its decisions. The converse of this is also likely true.
  2. The below example is that this shows more of an “ideal end state” — your org will likely have to take a few steps of organizational change before you can get here. But try to get as far as you can on step 1 — you might surprise yourself.
  3. We have probably added more formality and more documentation below than would be typical in a real life, highly Agile, community of practice. We do so here primarily for illustrative learning purposes, to give you more ideas than are truly needed (i.e. so you can pick and choose what work in your context). In real life, the community would likely be less formal.
  4. This example is for Architecture, but this same kind of approach easily fits other types of CoP’s: Agile CoP, Scrum CoP, Scrum Master CoP, Product Owner CoP, DevOps CoP, Programming CoP, Automated Testing CoP, UX CoP, SAFe CoP, RTE CoP, Nexus CoP, LeSS CoP, etc. [ONE MORE REMINDER: Your CoP should have the minimum amount of formality necessary, and to the extent possible, should operate bottom up.]

The Aegis Architecture Community of Practice

Our Charter Statement: We all work on a set of closely related products, collectively known as Aegis. This community organized around ensuring that the highest Architectural concerns that have a high impact on Aegis are efficiently and effectively addressed. Please note that this community focuses only on the highest Architectural concerns.

In Scope: The set of teams (TeamSet) that this community encompasses are: Stingray, 49’ers, Falcon, Journey, Explorers, Red October, Phoenix, and Hawking. The main “in scope” topic is high Architectural concerns, though the dividing line between “high” and “not high” is not always black and white. As you look below, hopefully the mechanisms we have in place will give you the idea of where that line is usually drawn.

Out of Scope: Practices related to Programming, Design and other concerns are generally left to others (Other communities and/or the Scrum teams themselves to self organize and solve). Test and Build automation is left to others. The Director of Software Dev hires and chooses the LA (Lead Architect), so that is out of scope for our community. Our Arch CoP only covers the teams in the Aegis TeamSet, so for Arch issues that are decided at the corporate level, you will need to talk to the EAG (Enterprise Architecture Group, not a CoP yet. 😦 ). Our Lead Architect has good communication with the EAG, but anyone should feel free to go the EAG for the appropriate services(just loop the Lead Architect in as well). Typically we form a working group from this CoP to go and talk to the EAG for any requests.


(In the sections below, note that we have specifically named them “Individuals”, “Interactions”, “Processes”, “Tools” to relate to the Agile Manifesto, valuing “Individuals and Interactions over Processes and Tools”.)

Individuals

Community Leadership

Home Scrum Team

Community Coordinators (CC) Jill Hutchins, Henry Nguyen Stingray, Falcon
Agile Coach Jeff Schwaber (Liaison to Scrum Master CoP) Falcon
Management Contact Ellie Swanson n/a, Director of Software Dev
Lead Architect(LA)
90% allocated to community
10% allocated to Scrum Team
Ian Robison Journey
Community Architects(CA)
50% allocated to community
50% allocated to Scrum Team
Phillip Smith Explorers
Brijesh Singh Hawking
Jill Hutchins Stringray
Henry Nguyen (Liaison to Tech Excellence COP) Falcon

Community Members

Architecture Team Reps(ATR)
10% allocated to community
90% allocated to Scrum Team
Sheila Hill Stingray
Carlos Diego 49’ers
Rachel Story Falcon
Chris Bradford Journey
(open) (interim- Phillip Smith) Explorers
Adam Gideon Red October
Adrienne Maxhouse Phoenix
Sandesh Mokkarala Hawking
General Member (GM)
All people above are also considered GM’s
Anyone interested!
Melissa Hayden (Liaison to Testing CoP)
Role Definitions
Community Coordinators This role is to be a servant leader to guide the community on what initiatives and other efforts to focus on. This role also helps provide leadership on which decisions are truly of high enough concern to warrant formality and process via the community. The only requirements for this role are that the person has the appropriate architecture knowledge and must have 3 months of experience in the role of ATR and/or CA prior to serving. The Lead Architect cannot be a coordinator (this helps prevent command and control hierarchical leadership — and respects self organization of the community). The coordinators are elected every 6 months.
Agile Coach This role is to be a servant leader to guide the community on how to respect the Agile Manifesto, the Scrum Guide, and in general, the “Community of Practice” approach to self organization. This person is expected to be an experienced senior Scrum Master or Agile Coach. The requirements for this role are: 1 year of experience as a Scrum Master or Agile Coach, 2 Agile/Scrum certifications, and at least 3 months of participation as a General Member in this community prior to serving. This person will also need to be able to spend ~20% of their time playing this role. The Agile Coach is elected every 6 months.
Management Contact This is senior management role from the Dev Org, cannot be a first line dev manager. Currently the Director of Software Dev plays this role. This contact is used to secure funding, facilities, and other logistical approvals needed for the community to hold its events. This person does not usually spend much time interacting with the community.
Lead Architect This person is hired by the Director of Software Dev to be the Lead Architect for the TeamSet and for the community. This person participates heavily in the community and has some decision making power (see “Process” below). The requirements for this role are determined by the Director of Software Dev. Cannot be the Community Coordinator (see that role description for more info)
Community Architect This person spends around 50% of their time on community initiatives. They are expected to be good communicators, accessible, and have the appropriate architecture knowledge.
The only requirements for this role are that the person has the appropriate architecture knowledge and must have 3 months of experience in the role of ATR and/or CA prior to serving.
Architectural Team Rep This person spends around 10% of their time on community initiatives. This usually revolves around being a communication radiator for their Home Scrum Team and ensuring that all relevant community communication gets shared with their home Scrum Team. This person will also often help with architectural initiatives that their Scrum Team is sponsoring. This should never be considered a gate or bottleneck role — i.e. anyone on any Scrum Team can interact with the community without having to go through (or get approval from) their ATR.
General Member Anyone who has an interest in architecture can participate in the public activities, meetings, and communication mechanisms of this community. In order to vote for the approval of CWA’s or in approval meetings, the person should have significant knowledge of the subject at hand, and have materially participated in 3 months worth of immediately prior community activities. It is strongly recommended that you recuse yourself from votes any time you do not meet these pre-requisites, OR any time you don’t have a strong opinion on the thing being voted on.
Liaison The community has various volunteer liaisons to other parts of the organization, generally to other CoP’s. These people help us identify synnergies and conflicts of scope between this community and the other communities. This is a pretty informal position, and any General Member is free to provide the same kind of information — it’s just that these people volunteer to definitely keep an ear to the ground between the two communities.

CWA’s re: Individuals

(CWA’s = Community Working Agreements)

  1. In everything we do, we try to honor Scrum(as defined in the Scrum Guide) and Agile (as defined in the Agile Manifesto). Because we have not yet chosen a scaled Scrum approach, we simply extend many of the ideas of the Scrum Guide and Agile Manifesto to our entire Community and TeamSet.
  2. The table and information above includes information that is also effectively CWA’s.
  3. Because we believe in the Agile value statement of valuing “Individuals and Interactions over Processes and Tools” and “Responding to Change over Following a Plan”, don’t ever be afraid to get some architects together in an ad hoc way to solve an architectural challenge — we can always retrofit those actions to our processes and tools later.
  4. Unless otherwise indicated, the use of the term “architect” refers to the LA, CA’s, and ATR’s (i.e. does not refer to GM’s).
  5. The architect titles above are completely independent from your job title and career path. The above titles are bestowed by the community (except for the LA, who is hired by the Director of Software Dev). This community makes no claim over the management or career path domains of the company. We are simply a self organizing community that co-exists with the rest of the organization.
  6. Every architect belongs to and works on a Scrum Team. In their Scrum team, they hold no special authority or title on their team other than “Scrum Dev Team member, ” regardless of their title in this community.
  7. Being a GM of the community is voluntary, with one exception: each Scrum team must choose and have an ATR with the appropriate skills, who is not an LA or CA.
  8. All new CWA’s(re: Individuals or any other topic) must be approved by a “fist of 3” by the entire community. For all new CWA’s that have a heavy impact beyond the community, a forum must be held where all Scrum team members from the TeamSet can give feedback prior to approval.
  9. There is always a Scrum team sponsor for each initiative, even if there is only a subset of the team working on the initiative.
  10. We strongly prefer bottom up initiation of all architectural initiatives, coming from the teams. Initiatives need not come from the architects, but the ATR for that sponsoring team must be involved and be highly informed of the initiative.
  11. The general time allocation expected of architects is listed in the chart above. Of course, there are exceptions at times. At any one given moment, an architect might have to choose between focusing on helping their team or helping their community. In that moment, the architect is expected to consult with others on which focus yields the most value for the entire TeamSet. Sometimes this means focusing on community efforts, and sometimes it means focusing on team efforts. Try to choose wisely in that moment.
  12. Coordinators can fulfill the role of either a CA or an ATR while also fulfilling the coordinator role, but this is not a requirement.
    1. Note above that an ATR cannot fulfill the role of ATR AND [CA or LA] at the same time, but an ATR could be an ATR and a coordinator at the same time.

Interactions

Communication Mechanisms
Ad hoc conversations and informal meetings — we encourage these the most! We encourage involving your ATR or CA when needed.
This Wiki
“Roughly” Monthly Public Meetings
Occasional ad hoc public meetings when needed (includes educational meetings, approval meetings, etc)
Group Chat (HipChat)
Email List
Occasional Private Meetings (Primarily only open to the LA, CA’s, ATR’s, and specially invited guests)
ATR’s are responsible for communicating the important outcomes of all of the above to their respective teams.
Architectural elements of the TeamSet Definition of Done
Scrum Team “Code Based Tools” pages
Communication Contact To get connected to our communication mechanisms, ask your ATR who to talk to.

CWA’s re: Interactions

  1. In everything we do, we try to honor Scrum(as defined in the Scrum Guide) and Agile (as defined in the Agile Manifesto). Because we have not yet chosen a scaled Scrum approach, we simply extend many of the ideas of the Scrum Guide and Agile Manifesto to our entire Community and TeamSet.
  2. The table above includes information that is also effectively CWA’s.
  3. Because we believe in the Agile value statement of valuing “Individuals and Interactions over Processes and Tools” and “Responding to Change over Following a Plan”, don’t ever be afraid to get some architects together in an ad hoc way to solve an architectural challenge — we can always retrofit those actions to our processes and tools later.
  4. In all of our architecture discussions and initiatives, we agree to use Agile Emergent Architecture.
  5. Our community maintains a wiki for any communication where light documentation seems like a good communication mechanism. This page is just one of our pages. See our home page for lots more stuff.
  6. Any person in the TeamSet can contact their ATR or a CA for help, collaboration, mentoring, or whatever is needed. It is NOT required to go through your ATR for every architecture interaction. We generally discourage direct communication with the LA unless you are working on an initiative with that person. The person is VERY busy. Your ATR or CA will involve the LA if that is needed.
  7. Each Scrum Team must keep an updated “Code Based Tools”(CBT) page connected to their team wiki. Only include tools that your team regularly uses and/or has significant experience with. The purpose of this CBT page is to spread knowledge to the entire TeamSet about which tools are in use, and which teams have knowledge of those tools. On the CBT page, the team must include 2 categories of tools and info:
    1. CBT’s that they use that are expressly approved by the Arch Community Tool Matrix.
      1. For each 3rd party library, please specify the exact library and versions in use, why the library is being used(it’s purpose), known scope of use(product, module, class, etc), and how widespread is its use (low, medium, high).
    2. CBT’s that they have not been expressly approved by the Arch Community Tool Matrix. (Note that this is not considered bad usage — not all tools are in the scope of our community)
      1. please specify the exact tool and versions in use, why the library is being used(it’s purpose), known scope of use(product, module, class, etc) and how widespread is its use (low, medium, high).
  8. In all of our communication mechanisms, we try very hard to be specific about topics of discussion and whether they are they “in scope for the community”– or not?
    1. For instance, using our communication mechanisms to just get general ad hoc architectural or even design/implementation/technical help is perfectly fine, but say something like “This is really more in scope for just our team, but we could really use some help on — who can help us with that?”
    2. If you’re not sure whether a topic is in scope for the community, just ask the community for help in determining that!
    3. Obviously, if you realize that a topic is in scope for a different community, by all means, please use that community’s communication mechanisms instead of ours.

Processes

Processes
Architecture Tools Approval Process (ATAP) (tools, frameworks, arch approaches, etc)
Election of Community Leaders
Quarterly Retrospectives

CWA’s re: Processes

  1. In everything we do, we try to honor Scrum(as defined in the Scrum Guide) and Agile (as defined in the Agile Manifesto). Because we have not yet chosen a scaled Scrum approach, we simply extend many of the ideas of the Scrum Guide and Agile Manifesto to our entire Community and TeamSet.
  2. The table above includes information that is also effectively CWA’s.
  3. Because we believe in the Agile value statement of valuing “Individuals and Interactions over Processes and Tools” and “Responding to Change over Following a Plan”, don’t ever be afraid to get some architects together in an ad hoc way to solve an architectural challenge — we can always retrofit those actions to our processes and tools later.
  4. We use the term “Tools” fairly broadly, to include essentially all architectural initiatives that require community approval or coordination.
  5. Community retrospectives are held at least once each quarter, and at least within the 2 weeks prior to a new community leadership election. At this time, we often review our CWA’s and Charter Statement to ensure we are in alignment.
  6. Every 6 months, an election is held to select the CC’s, CA’s, and Agile Coach.
  7. All architectural initiatives must include an “independent usage plan” that describes how future users of the initiative can be quickly educated on the tool/approach such that they will not be heavily dependent on tribal knowledge by a small number of people. This often includes light documentation as well as video recordings of education sessions for the initiative. Decreasing this type of “key person” risk enhances our Agility and ability to respond to change in the future.
  8. The ATAP is documented in detail elsewhere, but here is a summary:
    1. A Scrum Team suggests sponsoring an initiative to be approved as an experiment or as a tool, initiative, or decision that is approved for widespread community use.
      1. We encourage the teams, as much as possible, to sponsor initiatives of their own choosing. I..e we prefer they initiate.
        1. In rarer cases, sometimes the CA’s or LA will ask a team to sponsor, but the decision is up to the Scrum Team.
    2. An approval meeting is scheduled (giving the team time to be prepared). Sometimes this is done in regular monthly meetings, sometimes scheduled ad hoc.
    3. The Scrum Team makes review material available 1 week prior to the approval meeting for voting members to review prior to the approval meeting.
    4. The Scrum Team presents to the community.
    5. The community votes with a fist of five, where at least a fist of 3 is required of all approved voters. If a fist of 3 cannot be obtained, a “unity group” is formed to discuss further and/or come up with a compromise within 2 weeks, including those strongly in favor, as well as any that are a fist of 2 or lower(the dissenters). If the unity group can agree with in 2 weeks, then the voted is considered approved. If they cannot agree, then the LA makes the decision to approve or disapprove as a last resort.
    6. If approved, the community then documents the new tool as “approved for experiment” or “approved for use” and is added to the tool matrix. (see below)

Tools

Tools Matrix

Tool/Initiative Name

Being Proposed

Approved

For Experiment

Approved

For Use

Deprecated

Sunsetted

Logging Framework – SLF4J (v3.4, v4.0.1) X
Programming Language: Java (23.4 or above) X
Dependency Injection Framework: InjectorSpace 3.2 or above
(Home Grown)
X
Dependency Injection Framework: InjectorSpace 3.1 X
Dependency Injection Framework: InjectorSpace 3.0 or below X
Architectural Pattern/Domain Logic: Domain Model X
Architectural Pattern/Domain Logic: Service Layer X
Database: Oracle 23i or above X
Deployment Platforms: ???
Other various open source libraries:
Must be GPL-3.0 or EPL-1.0 license.
X
Programming Language: Scala (12 or above) X
Architectural Pattern: Microservices (will likely be limited in scope, as only valuable in certain contexts) X
Persistence Framework: Hibernate (54 or above) X
Architectural Pattern: Monolith applications X
Peer Review: Scrum Team must have documented procedures for peer reviews. X
… (author note — there would likely be many more items in a real CoP —
these are just examples)

Note that the TeamSet Definition of Done requires that all 3rd party tools that are code based (Libraries, code frameworks, Development Environments, etc) be represented on the above Tool Matrix.

The items below have at one time been considered out of scope for the Architectural Community.

Out of Scope Matrix

>

CWA’s re: Tools

  1. In everything we do, we try to honor Scrum(as defined in the Scrum Guide) and Agile (as defined in the Agile Manifesto). Because we have not yet chosen a scaled Scrum approach, we simply extend many of the ideas of the Scrum Guide and Agile Manifesto to our entire Community and TeamSet.
  2. The table above includes information that is also effectively CWA’s.
  3. Because we believe in the Agile value statement of valuing “Individuals and Interactions over Processes and Tools” and “Responding to Change over Following a Plan”, don’t ever be afraid to get some architects together in an ad hoc way to solve an architectural challenge — we can always retrofit those actions to our processes and tools later.
  4. We use the term “Tools” fairly broadly, to include essentially all architectural initiatives that require community approval or coordination.
  5. We don’t yet have any more special CWA’s on the Tools topic — most of what we record here is in the tool Matrix above.
  6. These tools have been considered to be “out of scope” for this community: Agile ALM Tool, Wiki Tool Choice, Test Driven Development, Peer review procedures, Test Automation techniques, Build Automation techniques, process compliance.

 

[TODO: Make Tables appear better]

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  1. […] An Agile Architecture Community of Practice […]

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