New and Improved User Story Lifeycle Diagram — Free Creative Commons PDF download!

I had a designer friend update my User Story Lifecycle diagram, and she did a fantastic job!  You can download the PDF here:  http://www.scrumcrazy.com/lifecycle

New and Improved Diagram:

UserStoryLifeCycle_final_lg

The Older Diagram(also still available at the above link):

UserStoryLifecyclexm

Other Good User Story Links

I’m Giving a Free Global Webinar this Wednesday on “Acceptance and Story Testing Patterns”

I just wanted to send a quick note to my followers to let you know that I’m giving a free global webinar this Wednesday on “Acceptance and Story Testing Patterns.”

Here is the abstract for the presentation:

Acceptance Testing, also known as Story Testing, is vital to achieve the Agile vision of “working software over comprehensive documentation.” It’s very important that acceptance tests are easily automated, resulting in a phenomenon you may have heard of, called the “Agile Specification.” In this presentation, we’ll discuss eight different patterns of expressing acceptance tests so that they are easy to execute and automate. We’ll talk about popular patterns like Given/When/Then and Specification by Example, as well some other patterns you’ve probably never seen. Attendees will participate in an interactive exercise that will allow them to apply the most frequently used Acceptance Testing patterns.

You can sign up for the free webinar here:

http://tinyurl.com/d4d6ehw

Handling Non Functional Requirements in User Stories and Scrum

Handling non-functional requirements in User Stories can at first seem difficult, but as it turns out, there’s a pretty easy way to handle them.

For performance requirements and many other non functional requirements(NFR’s), one can use constraints and stories. What I usually coach is to create a story to document the NFR and define story tests for it. Then, I suggest adding the story tests as a “constraint.” A constraint is something that all implemented stories(features and functionality) must comply with. If you’re using Scrum, then you’ll want to add something like this to your Definition of Done(DoD): “All stories must comply with all of the story constraints.”

Example

Step 1: Identify and quantify the constraint and put it in terms that your users and business stakeholders will understand.

Story Title: System response time

  • Story Test #1: Test that the system responds to all non search requests within 1 second of receiving the request
  • Story Test #2: Test that the system responds to all search requests within 10 seconds of receiving the request

Some things to keep in mind:

  • If you cannot quantify the story in concrete terms, this should be a bad smell that usually indicates a requirement that is too vague to be implemented. Vague NRF’s have the same problems that vague functional requirements do: It is hard to answer the question “How will I know when this story is correctly done?”
  • Be sure not to specify a technical solution or implementation in the story, because stories are about “The What”(“What the user wants”) and they are not about “The How” (“How this is implemented”).
  • Plan, estimate, split(if necessary), and implement this story like all other user stories, as part of the Product Backlog(Scrum).

Once this story is complete, the entire system will be in compliance with this particular constraint.

If your constraint is not system-wide or far reaching:

  • Just add it as a story test for that story. But again, specify the requirement, not the implementation, in terms the business stakeholders will understand.

The decision to create a constraint or not will rest on whether the constraint should be taken into account in at least several future stories(or system wide). If it will apply to several future stories, then create a constraint. If it won’t apply to several future stories, then just add the NFR as a story test to the stories that it applies to, or create a separate story to comply with the NFR in the small part of the system that requires it.

Step 2: Add the Story Tests to your list of constraints (and to your Definition of Done if you’re doing Scrum)

Publish your list of constraints(and/or DoD) somewhere that is highly visible. Even if you keep your constraints electronically, print them out in large print and post them somewhere on your Scrum board or in your team area.

Constraints
  • Test that the system responds to all non search requests within 1 second of receiving the request.
  • Test that the system responds to all search requests within 10 seconds of receiving the request.
  • Test that the system logs a user out after 10 seconds of inactivity and redirects their browser to the home page.
  • Test that any update to a person’s payment information(anywhere in the system) is logged to the payment_preferences log, along with the following information:
    • IP Address of logged in person
    • Old preference value, new preference value
    • Date/time of change
  • Test that any time a person’s credit card number is shown in the application, that only the last 4 digits display.

A note about Story size estimating:
Once a new constraint is added to the system, any stories in the product backlog that will have to comply with this constraint may need re-sizing if there is material time required to comply with the constraint. Said another way, all estimates for future stories will need to take into account the fact that the constraint must be complied with in order to call the story “done.”

If you’re doing Scrum, then add the constraints to your Definition of Done.

Definition of Done
  • All stories must comply with all of the story constraints<link to constraints page on wiki>.
  • All code must be peer reviewed within 4 hours of checkin.
  • If a change is made to the web services interface, the change must be documented on the official web services api wiki page<link to api on wiki>.
  • All code must have automated testing that is consistent with the “Automated Testing Guidelines”<link to guidelines on wiki>
  • Any change in of functionality that is visible in the GUI must be at least tested manually(automated tests also acceptable) against the integration environment before making the functionality available for a QA review.

Another note about Story size estimating:
Like I said above for the constraints, the Definition of Done should always be taken into account when sizing user stories. It might help to bring a copy of your DoD to your grooming and planning meetings to remind developers what all is included in their estimates.

Related Articles

A Visual Diagram of the User Story Life Cycle

This blog post is now deprecated.  Please see the new updated blog post:

http://scrumcrazy.wordpress.com/2013/06/13/new-and-improved-user-story-lifeycle-diagram-free-creative-commons-pdf-download/

 

My Preferred Agile, Scrum, and XP Resources

If you’re printing this post, it can be found online at: http://www.scrumcrazy.com/My+Preferred+Agile%2C+Scrum%2C+and+XP+Resources

A friend recently asked me this question:

What would you recommend in terms of the best book(s) to learn about Agile (Scrum) with XP practices? That is, if you had a team of developers who were newbies to Agile, Scrum, and XP, what books/articles would you give them to bring them up to speed on what they should be doing and how they should be doing it?

This question from my friend is a very tricky one, in that it is very broad and generic, and my friend gave me no extra team or organizational context to go on, so about all I can do is give a generic answer, and that is what I’ve done below. If you’re looking to combine Scrum with XP practices, be sure and see Kniberg’s book under “Scrum” below.

Don’t have time to read all of these? Well then, read the first couple from each category, and then continue working your way down each list.

My Preferred Resources

All are in order of my personal preference in each category.


Scrum

  1. The Scrum Guide (Must read for all)
  2. Deemer, et al. “The Scrum Primer”
  3. Cohn’s _Agile Estimating and Planning_ (Must read for Scrum Masters)
  4. Pichler’s _Agile Product Management…_ (Must read for Product Owners)
  5. Cohn’s _Succeeding With Agile…_ (Must read for Scrum Masters once they have a few Sprints under their belts)
  6. Kniberg’s _Scrum and XP From the Trenches_ (Note that there is a free PDF download of this book if you register with InfoQ – something I recommend anyway)
  7. Derby/Larsen’s _Agile Retrospectives_

XP (Extreme Programming)

  1. Jeffries’ “What is Extreme Programming?”
  2. Jeffries’ _Extreme Programming Installed_
  3. Koskela’s _Test Driven…_
  4. Martin’s _Clean Code_
  5. Feathers’ _Working Effectively With Legacy Code_
  6. “The Rules of Extreme Programming”
  7. Wiki entry on XP Practices

Agile/XP Testing

  1. Summary of Lisa Crispin’s Presentation to Agile Denver on Test Automation
  2. Cripin’s “Using the Agile Testing Quadrants”
  3. Crispin/Gregory’s _Agile Testing_
  4. Crispin/House’s _Testing Extreme Programming_
  5. Cohn’s “The Forgotten Layer of the Test Automation Pyramid”
  6. Osherove’s _The Art of Unit Testing_

User Stories (which originated in XP)

  1. My “User Story Basics” article and all of the links at the bottom of that article
  2. Cohn’s _User Stories Applied_
  3. Cohn’s _Agile Estimating and Planning…_ (Chapter 12: Splitting User Stories)
  4. Lawrence’s “Patterns for Splitting User Stories”

Special Agile Topics (if applicable)

  1. Deemer’s “The Distributed Scrum Primer” (If some of all your team is remotely distributed)
  2. My article entitled “The Role of Managers In Scrum” and all of the links at the bottom of that article
  3. Larman/Vodde’s _Scaling Lean Agile…_ (If your Agile transformation involves a very large organization)

User Story Basics – What is a User Story?

What is a User Story? I’m glad you asked!

First of all, it’s important to say that User Stories are not a part of Scrum as defined in the required practices in the Scrum Guide. User Stories are but one way to represent Product Backlog Items in Scrum, and while it is the most popular method used, it is not the only method. Still, though, I would like to remind you that the User Stories practice is totally independent of Scrum, and thus it is not defined by Scrum. As such, everything else in this post is about the User Story practice and not Scrum itself.

Beware the common misconception!

There is a common misconception in the industry that a User Story is a sentence like:

  • As a <user> I want <some functionality> so that <some benefit is realized>.

THIS IS NOT A USER STORY!!! This is the biggest User Story trap in existence! See Trap#1 and #8 of my article on User Story Traps.

What is a User Story?

<Definition>
A user story describes functionality of a system that will be valuable to a Non Development Team(NDT) stakeholder of a system or software. User stories are composed of three aspects:

  • a written description or short title of the story used as a token for planning and as a reminder to have conversations
  • conversations about the story that serve to flesh out the details of the story
  • acceptance tests that convey and document details and that can be used to determine when a story is complete

</Definition>

What do they mean by Acceptance Tests?

Typically, in the context of a User Story definition, we mean tests that are represented by conversations, textual descriptions, tables, diagrams, automated tests, and so forth. When these Acceptance Tests are applied to the completed, implemented User Story, all of the tests should pass, and will thus prove that the story has been implemented correctly. If some functionality was not covered in a User Story acceptance test, then it wasn’t a requirement for that particular User Story.

Technically, in the context of a User Story definition, an acceptance test need not be automated or implemented. At the minimum, it should be described conceptually. The test should then be executed in order to prove the story and get acceptance, whether that be a manual or automated process. If your conceptual acceptance tests are described by one or more automated tests, then that is generally a much better practice, but not absolutely required.

Acceptance Tests should be automatable about 90+% of the time, though again, it is not required that they be automated. Having said all of that, when teams strive for development speed and quality, very few get far along that road without automating a large portion of their acceptance tests.

Acceptance Tests, in the context of User Stories, are also sometimes called Story Tests, Acceptance Criteria, Conditions of Satisfaction, and Test Confirmations.

Ron Jeffries, one of the co-inventors of User Stories and Extreme Programming (where the User Story practice comes from), has a good article that also describes User Stories in a basic way.

When do these Conversations and Acceptance Tests get created?

Typically, this happens in weekly Product Backlog grooming(also known as a Story Writing Workshop, Story Grooming, etc) sessions, but can also happen informally. The most effective backlog grooming includes some stakeholder/user representatives, the entire development team, and a Product Owner (Scrum) or Customer(XP). These sessions happen weekly and usually last 1-2 hours each. The goal of the sessions is to get stories that are “ready”, meaning the team has a shared understanding of the Acceptance Tests, and has the vast majority of the information they need to implement(code) the feature. See What does Product Backlog Grooming Look Like? for more on that topic. Keep in mind that sometimes a single User Story will be discussed in 2-3 grooming sessions before it is “ready”, especially if there are open questions or complex logic involved.

Frequently Asked Questions

Should I use a User Story to represent bugs/defects in a system?
The short answer is “it depends.” If it is a legacy or deferred bug, then yes, and it should end up on the Product Backlog(story points assigned). If it is a bug that was introduced since Scrum/Agile was put in place, then no, and it should end up on the Sprint Backlog(no story points assigned). See One way to handle Bugs and Production Support in Scrum for the longer answer.

Where do I get more info?

Handling Scope Changes Mid-Sprint in Scrum

The first thing about handling scope changes mid-Sprint is to recognize what type of scope change it is.

Bug or Production Support request?

If it’s a bug, or a production support research request, then my preferred method is to use One way to handle Bugs and Production Support in Scrum . As it says in that article, I hope you don’t need that chart. If you’re one of those teams where such bugs and production support requests are very rare (say, on average, once or less every 2-3 months), I’d say just do it and you can choose whether to make it a Product Backlog Item or put it on the Sprint Backlog. You’ll probably lean towards PBI if it’s a big thing, or put it on the Sprint Backlog if it’s a small thing.

Scope Change to PBI in Progress

If it’s a scope change to a Product Backlog Item in progress, my hope is that this means a new or changed acceptance/story test of some sort. If you’re not practicing Acceptance Test Driven Design, you should be! For you non ATDD types, the old school terminology for this is a “requirement change.” I’ve been around the block a few times coaching Scrum Teams on this scenario. My best advice is this:

  • If the change in scope is likely to increase the originally estimated size for the story by more than about 10%, then the change should be a new Product Backlog Item by itself. You may need the whole team to re-estimate the newly changed story.
  • If it is less than about 10%, then just change your acceptance tests, do it alongside the current PBI, and move on with life.

Swapping in the new PBI

If the scope change does result in a new PBI, then in rare cases where it is strongly warranted, a Scrum Team should be flexible enough to swap that PBI in and do it in the current Sprint. However, this usually means some other PBI will have to be swapped out of the Sprint as well. If these kinds of “swaps” begin happening regularly, then your team needs to do a root cause analysis on the swaps in the Retrospective.

  • In this scenario, don’t forget that the new, urgent PBI needs to be groomed, sized, and tasked out on the Sprint Backlog. Get all of your team together and you can usually do this in a matter of minutes.

Story Testing Patterns – My Recent Presentation at Mile High Agile

You can now find my recent presentation(along with all the handouts, etc), “Story Testing Patterns” on my website here:

http://www.scrumcrazy.com/Presentation+-+Story+Testing+Patterns

Feel free to add any comments here on my blog.

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One Way to Handle Bugs and Production Support in Scrum

Dear ScrumCrazy readers,

I need your help. I’m working on a Scrum strategy for handling bugs and production support on a Scrum team. This is the first draft of the chart below. I already have a couple of changes I would like to make, so I’d appreciate it if anyone could provide feedback on the chart below. Just hit the “comment” button below or email me directly with your advice. Thanks!

The Scrum Guide doesn’t directly address how to incorporate production support and bugs into your Scrum implementation. As such, it is left up to the implementers to decide how to handle it. The strategy(chart) below is one I’ve developed as a result of coaching teams that are new to Scrum.

I hope you don’t need the chart. I’ll say it again. I hope you don’t need the chart below. I hope that you have so few bugs and productions support issues arise, that you don’t even really need to worry about classifying bugs or coming up with a technique to handle production support. But, for the teams that need some guidance on how to incorporate these issues into their Scrum implementation, see below for one way to approach it. I also feel compelled to say that if you find yourself needing this strategy/chart often, you probably have some serious root cause analysis and retrospecting to do on these occurrences.

Why I include “Bradley” in the name.

Please be sure and read the “Preface” section on the chart below. There is an 8.5 X 11 PDF download below the image.

It’s a little difficult to see here on WordPress, so you might want to view it on my web site.

The Bradley Bug Chart
Download (8.5 X 11 PDF):  http://www.scrumcrazy.com/file/view/ScrumBug8x5x11.pdf

So, what did ya think?  Just hit the “comment” button(or “Leave a Reply” form) below or email me directly with your advice.

I Mostly Hate Software for Managing Scrum Teams

Update February, 2012: I’m currently seeking my next engagement as a Scrum Coach or ScrumMaster, so please contact me (You can use the “About” tab above) if you know of an opportunity.

I often get asked to evaluate a particular Scrum tool or to compare the relatively value of one to another. To be honest, tool evaluation is not something I spend significant time on. Most teams I coach have little choice about which tool to use, so I usually just a) try to encourage them to use more manual techniques and b) help the team adapt the tool usage to their optimum performance/usage, which sometimes means no usage.

I hate the tools

Ok, hate is a strong word, but I’m generally anti-tool when it comes to managing Scrum artifacts and data. I strongly prefer more manual techniques (Scrum Boards, sticky notes, story cards, white boards, wikis, etc).

Reason 1: Tools often hurt more than they help. (Decreases Productivity)

The vast majority of the time I have seen Scrum teams extensively using a tool, it is wasteful or aids in creating poor habits. It’s pretty hard to justify spending money on a tool that decreases overall productivity. I’m amazed at how many companies do this. I also believe that most of these tools have a huge amount of bloat in them, and thus the bloated features either a) obscure the needed features or b) waste a lot of time with very little ROI in terms of value.

Reason 2: They usually encourage bad habits, or at least enable bad habits. (Decreases Transparency & Productivity)

  • Bad Habit # 1: The worst habit they encourage is that they often obscure transparency by hiding data inside the tool that has to be …started up, logged into, and menu driven to the point of wanted info. Transparency in Scrum is VERY important, which is why I favor more manual techniques. This obscurity is extremely widespread as it affects the product backlog and/or stories, sprint backlog tasking, teamwork, optimizing with a burndown chart or other sprint progress monitor, etc. Transparency aids in inspection and adaptation, so the converse is also true: obscurity detracts from inspection and adaptation and thus, detracts from the empirical nature of Scrum.
  • Bad Habit # 2: They discourage mis-use of good techniques. For instance, in many tools, there is no direct support for story tests/acceptance tests directly with the User Stories themselves. One tool at least allows some basic html formatting and tables so that you could put in some concrete examples like those that are encouraged by the “Specification By Example” technique. However, that tool’s HTML formatting is very clunky and far inferior to any decent wiki.
  • Bad Habit #3: Having a tool encourages double entry. I’ve seen teams where, because they were forced to use a tool but also wanted a good Scrum Board, had to do double entry of the same information. Giant waste of time.
  • Bad Habit #4: A tool encourages mis-use of metrics created by Scrum related data such as velocity. Many managers and executive types will try to do draw incorrect conclusions from data tracked in such a tool. Yet another giant waste of time. The managers and executive types should instead be focusing on whether the users of the system are getting value out of the features that are being provided. While some management has a responsibility to focus on productivity in software development, micro-analyzing the Scrum data is not a good way to do this.

Reason 3: The development team usually has the tool forced upon them, or usually has no choice but to use a particular tool. (Decreases Self Organization)

Besides the normal effects of top down mandates (poor adoption, minimal ROI, etc), the elephant in the room created by mandating tools is that it greatly harms self organization on a Scrum team. Mandating particular tools or tool usage is just another form of command and control management. To achieve Scrum’s benefits, self organization is absolutely vital, which means, when it comes to tools, the team should be able to make their own choices.  I want the team as a whole (and preferably not the ScrumMaster at all) to create, maintain, own, love, and care for their own artifacts.  Having said all of this, it’s perfectly acceptable for management types to try and organize company strategy around goals and timelines — I just don’t believe that Scrum software tools are a good way to do that.

In Conclusion…

There, I said it… I’m generally anti-tool for Scrum artifacts and data.

In a future blog post, I intend to talk a little about some special contexts in which I think tool usage is ok, and about my general views as to the kinds of tools that I like. Teams where multiple members are working mostly remote is one exception to my generally anti-tool stance. I’ll talk more about that in the future post.

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